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弹簧机疲劳的几项影响因素?

来源: http://www.diannaothj.com    时间:2017-03-01 18:14:17 作者:山东银丰弹簧机设备

1、屈服强度材料的屈服强度和疲劳极限之间有一定的关系,一般来说,材料的屈服强度越高,疲劳强度也越高,因此,为了提高弹簧的疲劳强度应设法提高弹簧材料的屈服强度,或采用屈服强度和抗拉强度比值高的材料。对同一材料来说,细晶粒组织比粗细晶粒组织具有更高的屈服强度。
1, the material yield strength yield strength and fatigue limit of the relationship between a certain, in general, the higher the yield strength of the material, the fatigue strength is higher, therefore, in order to improve the fatigue strength of the spring should try to increase the yield strength of the spring material, or the yield strength and tensile strength of the high ratio of materials. For the same material, the fine grain structure has higher yield strength than the coarse grain structure.
2、表面状态大应力多发生在弹簧材料的表层,所以弹簧的表面质量对疲劳强度的影响很大。弹簧材料在轧制、拉拔和卷制过程中造成的裂纹、疵点和伤痕等缺陷往往是造成弹簧疲劳断裂的原因。材料表面粗糙度愈小,应力集中愈小,疲劳强度也愈高。材料表面粗糙度对疲劳极限的影响。
2, the maximum stress of the surface state occurs in the surface of the spring material, so the surface quality of the spring has a great influence on the fatigue strength. Spring material defects in rolling, drawing and coiling process caused by crack, defect or scar is often the cause of fatigue fracture of the spring. The smaller the surface roughness, the smaller the stress concentration and the higher the fatigue strength. Effect of surface roughness on fatigue limit.
3、尺寸效应材料的尺寸愈大,由于各种冷加工和热加工工艺所造成的缺陷可能性愈高,产生表面缺陷的可能性也越大,这些原因都会导致疲劳性能下降。因此在计算弹簧的疲劳强度时要考虑尺寸效应的影响。
3, the effects of the size of material size becomes larger, due to defects caused by the possibility of a variety of cold and hot processing technology with higher possibility of surface defects is larger, these reasons will lead to fatigue performance. So the effect of size effect should be taken into account when calculating the fatigue strength of spring.
4、弹簧机冶金缺陷冶金缺陷是指材料中的非金属夹杂物、气泡、元素的偏析,等等。存在于表面的夹杂物是应力集中源,会导致夹杂物与基体界面之间过早地产生疲劳裂纹。采用真空冶炼、真空浇注等措施,可以大大提高钢材的质量。
4. Metallurgical defects of spring machine are metallurgical defects, such as nonmetallic inclusions, bubbles, segregation of elements, etc.. The inclusion on the surface is a source of stress concentration, which can lead to premature fatigue cracks between the interface and the interface. The quality of steel can be greatly improved by vacuum smelting and vacuum pouring.
5、腐蚀介质弹簧在腐蚀介质中工作时,由于表面产生点蚀或表面晶界被腐蚀而成为疲劳源,在变应力作用下就会逐步扩展而导致断裂。例如在淡水中工作的弹簧钢,疲劳极限仅为空气中的10%~25%。腐蚀对弹簧疲劳强度的影响,不仅与弹簧受变载荷的作用次数有关,而且与工作寿命有关。所以设计计算受腐蚀影响的弹簧时,应将工作寿命考虑进去。
5, corrosion medium spring in corrosive medium work, because the surface pitting corrosion or surface grain boundary corrosion and become fatigue source, under the influence of the stress will gradually expand and cause fracture. For example, in the fresh water spring steel, fatigue limit is only 10%~25%. The effect of corrosion on the fatigue strength of the spring is not only related to the number of times the spring is affected by the variable load, but also related to the service life. Therefore, the design and calculation of the impact of corrosion of the spring, the work life should be taken into account.
6、弹簧机温度碳钢的疲劳强度,从室温到120℃时下降,从120℃到350℃又上升,温度高于350℃以后又下降,在高温时没有疲劳极限。在高温条件下工作的弹簧,要考虑采用耐热钢;在低于室温的条件下,钢的疲劳极限有所增加。
6. The fatigue strength of the carbon steel of the spring machine is decreased from room temperature to 120 DEG C, rising from the temperature of 120 DEG C to the temperature of 350 DEG C, the temperature is higher than the temperature of 350 DEG C and then decreased. Under the condition of high temperature, the heat resistant steel should be considered, and the fatigue limit of the steel is increased under the condition of lower temperature.

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