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影响弹簧疲劳强度因素有哪些

来源: http://www.diannaothj.com    时间:2016-05-16 16:32:18 作者:山东银丰弹簧机设备

一、腐蚀介质弹簧在腐蚀介质中工作时,由于表面产生点蚀或表面晶界被腐蚀而成为疲劳源,在变应力作用下就会逐步扩展而导致断裂。例如在淡水中工作的弹簧钢,疲劳极限仅为空气中的10%~25%。腐蚀对弹簧疲劳强度的影响,不仅与弹簧受变载荷的作用次数有关,而且与工作寿命有关。所以设计计算受腐蚀影响的弹簧时,应将工作寿命考虑进去。
Firstly, when the corrosion medium spring is working in the corrosive medium, it becomes a fatigue source because of the corrosion on the surface and the surface of the grain boundary. Spring steel, for example, in fresh water, the fatigue limit is only 10%~25% in the air. The influence of corrosion on the fatigue strength of springs is not only related to the action times of the spring loaded, but also related to the working life. So the design calculation of the impact of the corrosion of the spring should be taken into account.
第二、表面状态大应力多发生在弹簧材料的表层,所以弹簧的表面质量对疲劳强度的影响很大。弹簧材料在轧制、拉拔和卷制过程中造成的裂纹、疵点和伤痕等缺陷往往是造成弹簧疲劳断裂的原因。
Second, the maximum surface state stress occurs in the spring material surface, so the surface quality of the spring has a great influence on the fatigue strength. Spring materials in the rolling, drawing and coiling process caused by the cracks, defects and injuries and other defects are often the cause of fatigue fracture of the spring.
第三、温度碳钢的疲劳强度,从室温到120℃时下降,从120℃到350℃又上升,温度高于350℃以后又下降,在高温时没有疲劳极限。在高温条件下工作的弹簧,要考虑采用耐热钢。在低于室温的条件下,钢的疲劳极限有所增加。
Third, the temperature of carbon steel fatigue strength, from room temperature to 120 degrees Celsius, from 120 to 350 degrees Celsius and rising, the temperature is higher than 350 degrees Celsius and then decreased, there is no fatigue limit at high temperature. Spring in the work of high temperature conditions, to consider the use of heat resistant steel. Under the condition of room temperature, the fatigue limit of the steel is increased.
第四、冶金缺陷冶金缺陷是指材料中的非金属夹杂物、气泡、元素的偏析,等等。存在于表面的夹杂物是应力集中源,会导致夹杂物与基体界面之间过早地产生疲劳裂纹。采用真空冶炼、真空浇注等措施,可以大大提高钢材的质量。
Fourth, metallurgical defect metallurgical defect refers to the material in the non-metallic inclusions, bubbles, elements of segregation, etc.. The inclusion of the surface is a source of stress concentration, which leads to fatigue cracks between the interface of the inclusion and the matrix. Using vacuum smelting, vacuum pouring and other measures, can greatly improve the quality of steel.
第五、屈服强度材料的屈服强度和疲劳极限之间有一定的关系,一般来说,材料的屈服强度越高,疲劳强度也越高,因此,为了提高弹簧的疲劳强度应设法提高弹簧材料的屈服强度,或采用屈服强度和抗拉强度比值高的材料。对同一材料来说,细晶粒组织比粗细晶粒组织具有更高的屈服强度。
Fifth, the yield strength of the material yield there is a certain relationship between the ultimate strength and fatigue, generally speaking, the material yield strength is higher, the higher fatigue strength. Therefore, in order to improve the fatigue strength of the spring should try to improve the yield strength of the spring material, or the use of yield strength and tensile strength ratio of high material. For the same material, the fine grain structure has higher yield strength than the coarse grain structure.

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